Allah is the creator of the entire universe...the creator of every minute as well as massive phenomenon...the creator of each and every object from atoms to constellations. Man's search for reasons behind every phenomena and every fact comes to an end in Him who is beyond any reason. He is the ultimate destination of all queries. Since every object in this universe, however small or big, demands a reason, certainly, the one who is beyond all quests and doesn't demand a reason should be remote from this world and should be beyond a being. Thus Allah, who is the creator of the world but remote from the world, is indeed the processor of an entity that possesses characteristics beyond that of a substance.
Allah created time-space continuum. But Allah's entity is beyond time-space continuum. Human beings are incompetent to guess or deduce the characteristics of this entity. It is beyond the capability of human brain, which is chained by time-space continuum, to picturise Allah who He is beyond the time space continuum circle. The following Quran verse points at this fact:
â€œNo vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.â€(Qur'an 6:103)
Since human brain is incapable to deduce His characteristics, He should introduce Himself to us. The knowledge about Allah that He Himself has revealed to us is the only available gateway to understand Him. The pious preceding scholarshave taken the stand to accept all the descriptions of Allah reported in the Quran and prophetic words as such without trying to elaborate or reduce anything from it. If they came across any description that seemed unable to be understood due to the limitations of the human brain, they humbly comment â€˜Allah knows the best'. This, in fact, is the right stand. All those who tried to assign self explanations and deductions of the Godly entity according to their logic and brain have resulted entangled in philosophy portraying strange and shattered images for God. Those inside the Muslim community as well as those outside have unfortunately fallen victims of this.
The word â€˜daath' can be translated as entity in English. Nowhere in the Quran can we find the word â€˜daath' while discussing about Allah. In places where the word â€˜daath' is mentioned, it does not take the meaning â€˜entity of Allah'. The holy Quran and prophetic words make clear that Allah's â€˜daath' is beyond human guesses, explanations and deductions. The sole option in front of the prudent ones is to ensure the authenticity of the Quran and hadiths and accept it whole heartedly.
Indeed the statement, the creator of the universe should be beyond the universe, is a naive logic. It doesn't require years of research to make out that the creator of an object will not be a part of the object. This simple logic is put forward in the holy Quran.
â€œDo ye feel secure that He Who is in heaven will not cause you to be swallowed up by the earth when it shakes. Or do ye feel secure that He Who is in Heaven will not send against you a violent tornado (with showers of stones), so that ye shall know how severe was My warning?â€(Qur'an 67:16, 17)
â€œHe regulates the affair from the heaven to the earth; then shall it ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count.â€(Qur'an 32:05)
â€œIf any do seek for glory and power, to Allah belong all glory and power. To Him mount up (all) Words of Purity: It is He Who exalts each Deed of Righteousness. Those that lay plots of Evil, for them is a penalty terrible; and the plotting of such will be void (of result).â€(Qur'an 35:10)
â€œTo Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand yearsâ€(Qur'an 70:04)
Some Hadiths, too, introduce Allah as the one in the heaven.
Mu'awiyathibnu Abu al-Hakam said: â€œI had a maid-servant who tended goats by the side of uhud and Jawwaniya. One day I happened to pass that way and found that a wolf had carried a goat from her flock. I am after all a man from the posterity of Adam. I felt sorry as they (human beings) feel sorry. So I slapped her. I came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and felt (this act of mine) as something grievous I said: Messenger of Allah, should I not grant her freedom? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Bring her to me. So I brought her to him. He said to her: Where is Allah? She said: He is in the heaven. He said: Who am I? She said: Thou art the Messenger of Allah. He said: Grant her freedom, she is a believing woman.â€(Sahih Muslim)
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, â€œIf somebody gives in charity something equal to a date from his honestly earned money â€”â€”for nothing ascends to Allah except goodâ€”â€” then Allah will take it in His Right Hand and bring it up for its owner as anyone of you brings up a baby horse, till it becomes like a mountain.â€ (Sahih Bukhari)
The following is a part of a lengthy Hadith regarding Hajjathul Vidareported by Ja'far IbnMuhammad:
â€œ...And you would be asked about me on the Day of Resurrection, (now tell me) what would you say? They said: â€˜We will bear witness that you have conveyed the message, discharged the ministry of Prophet hood and given wise (sincere) counsel.' The Prophet then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people and said: â€œO Allah, be witness. 0 Allah, be witness,â€ saying it thrice.(Sahih Muslim)
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Amr : The Prophet said: The Compassionate One has mercy on those who are merciful. If you show mercy to those who are on the earth, He Who is in the heaven will show mercy to you.(Sunan Abu Dawood, Jaami utThirmidi- This is classified as Sahih by Sheikh Albani in his Jamiiut Thirmidhi Hadith No: 1923)
These Hadiths and Quran verses do not convey the image of a God enthroned in the blue sky similar to that of the Hindu scriptures. We know that it is due to the scattering of the sun's rays that the sky appears blue. In fact there is no such sky. Quran talks in chapter 71 verse 15 about the seven skies that are created one above the other and it is in the first sky that the stars and the planets are deployed.
â€œThen He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the lower heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.â€ (Qur'an 41:12)
â€œWe have adorned the lower heaven with the adornment of the starsâ€(Qur'an 37:06)
From these verses we get an idea that the universe that man has already discovered and that he is going to discover in future is within the first sky. There isn't, indeed, a slightest doubt that the one who created these seven skies is beyond the skies. Quran verses and Hadiths referring to Allah as â€˜the one in the heavens', reveal this very essence.
This point might instinct the following doubt. Both the verse in surah mulk (67:16) as well as the Hadith reported by Abdullahibnu Amrubnul Aaswil recorded in Abu Dawood and Thirmidi uses the phrase â€˜man fi samaa'. â€˜The one in the heavens' is probably the rough translation of this phrase. The preposition â€˜fi' is used to denote â€˜in' or â€˜inside' in Arabic. For example, â€˜fil baythi' means â€˜inside the house'. â€˜alal baythi' is used to denote â€˜above the house'. Thus it is natural to doubt whether the term â€˜fi samaa' holds the meaning â€˜inside the sky'. Proficient Qur'an interpreters have responded to this doubt. They comment that even though the preposition â€˜fi' means â€˜in', it sometimes takes the meaning â€˜on' and hence â€˜fi samaa' used in the above verses refers to â€˜beyond the heaven'. Examples for using the word â€˜fi' instead of â€˜ala' to refer to â€˜on' can be quoted from the Qur'an itself. The following is an extract from the Quran that draws our attention to the words of Pharaoh:
â€œ... Surely this must be your leader, who has taught you magic! be sure I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will have you crucified on trunks of palm-trees...â€(Qur'an 20:71)
In this verse, the Arabic phrase â€˜fi judooinnakhli' is translated as â€˜on the trunks of palm tree'. It is evident that the phrase â€˜fi' is used with the meaning â€˜on'.
When Allah is referred to as â€˜beyond the universe', it does neither imply that he is ignorant of any universal phenomena nor that he has no power over it. In turn, even though His entity is beyond the universe, He overpowers all sophisticated as well as naive phenomena. He isn't ignorant of any single phenomena...even the leaves dangle exclusively at His command. There isn't a single area among the creations which is beyond His interference.
â€œWith Him are the keys of the unseen, the treasures that none knoweth but He. He knoweth whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf doth fall but with His knowledge: there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth, nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered), but is (inscribed) in a record clear (to those who can read).â€(Qur'an 6:59)
â€œHe is the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, the Great, the High Exalted. Alike (to Him) among you is he who conceals (his) words and he who speaks them openly, and he who hides himself by night and (who) goes forth by day.â€(Qur'an 13:09,10)
â€œAnd whether ye hide your word or publish it, He certainly has (full) knowledge, of the secrets of (all) hearts. Should He not know what He created? And He is the Subtile, the Aware.â€(Qur'an 67:13,14)
â€œThis is so, because Allah is the Reality: it is He Who gives life to the dead, and it is He Who has power over all things.â€(Qur'an 22:06)
â€œBlessed be He in whose hands is Dominion; and He over all things hath Powerâ€(Qur'an 67:01)
Quran teaches that Allah is indeed close to us.
â€œWhen My servants ask thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will, Listen to My call, and believe in Me: That they may walk in the right way.â€(Qur'an2:186)
â€œWe verily created man and We know what his soul whispereth to him, and We are nearer to him than his neck vein. Behold, two (guardian angels) appointed to learn (his doings) learn (and noted them), one sitting on the right and one on the left.
Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready (to note it).(Qur'an 50:16-18)
Certain Hadiths, too, depict the same.
Abu Musa Al-Ashari reported: While on a journey with the prophet, they prayed aloud. Then the prophet said: â€œThe one whom you pray to is neither deaf nor far. He is indeed near and hears your prayers and answers them.â€(Musnad Ahmed, Hadith:18780)
Abu Huraira reports: The prophet said: â€œAllah says: I am with my slave whenever he remembers me and moves his lips in remembrance.â€ (Musnad Ahmed, hadith:10545)
Prominent Quran interpreters have made it clear that these Hadiths and Qur'an verses do not mean that Allah's entity is present near the people, nor do they mean that it is present inside their neck vein. On precise analysis it becomes clear that it is a manifestation of Allah's wisdom and power. There are scholars who have the opinion that it is the angels who are referred to as â€˜nearer than the neck vein'. Nevertheless, neither the Qur'an nor the prophetic words upholds the Hindu Adwaitha philosophy that the Almighty Creator's entity is spread throughout the universe.